Ocular findings in trigonocephaly

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1994 Dec;232(12):728-33. doi: 10.1007/BF00184275.


Background: Trigonocephaly, caused by premature closure of the metopic suture, is a rare form of craniosynostosis. The aim of this study was to assess the visual outcome in children operated on for trigonocephaly.

Methods: We present eight cases of children with trigonocephaly surgically corrected by the same craniofacial technique. CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in all cases. Genitori defined three types of trigonocephaly according to the severity of the deformity of the skull base only types II and III were included in this study directed at evaluation of the ocular disorder. A complete eye examination was performed on all children by the same observer, with a follow-up of 2-6 years.

Results: 3D-CT reconstruction of the skull base showed that the frontozygomatic region was affected by the deformation. Ocular examination showed considerable astigmatism in most children with late operation. A low degree of strabismus was observed in most children.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that reconstructive surgery should be performed by the age of 6 months, given the immaturity of the visual system up to that time. Close cooperation between neurosurgeons, pediatricians and ophthalmologists is of paramount importance in order to prevent this bone deformation exerting an adverse effect on visual development. The ophthalmologist must possess a basic understanding of the various craniosynostoses.

MeSH terms

  • Astigmatism / etiology
  • Craniosynostoses / complications*
  • Craniosynostoses / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Strabismus / etiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vision Disorders / etiology*
  • Visual Acuity