Daytime sleepiness, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux amongst young adults in three European countries

J Intern Med. 1995 Mar;237(3):277-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.1995.tb01176.x.


Objectives: To study the geographical variation in daytime sleepiness, snoring and disrupted breathing during sleep and to identify and compare risk factors using the same method in four European cities.

Design: A cross-sectional, multicentre epidemiological survey.

Setting: Reykjavik in Iceland, Uppsala and Göteborg in Sweden and Antwerp in Belgium.

Participants: A random population sample of 2202 subjects who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

Main outcome measures: Sleep disturbances and daytime symptoms.

Results: At all the centres, 5% of the men and 2-3% of the women reported snoring every night. Daytime sleepiness (DS) was more often reported in Uppsala [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval: 1.6 (1.2-2.1)] than in the other centres, whilst daytime tiredness (DT) was most common in Reykjavik [ OR 1.8 (1.4-2.1)]. Snoring was positively correlated with age, male gender and body-mass index in all areas. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux were associated with DS: OR 2.6 (1.5 4.4) and DT: OR 4.5 (2.7-7.6) and disrupted breathing: OR 3.8 (1.4-10). DS and DT were reported more often by women than by men.

Conclusion: The prevalence of snoring was about the same in all four areas, whilst there was a geographical variation in daytime sleepiness and tiredness. As complaints of DS and DT and disrupted breathing were more common in subjects who reported symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux, we suggest that polysomnographic studies comparing sleep patterns in adult patients with and without reflux should be conducted.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Seasons
  • Sex Factors
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / etiology*
  • Snoring* / complications
  • Snoring* / epidemiology
  • Snoring* / etiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires