Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multisystemic vascular dysplasia and recurrent haemorrhage. Linkage for some families has been established to chromosome 9q33-q34. In the present study, endoglin, a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) binding protein, was analysed as a candidate gene for the disorder based on chromosomal location, expression pattern and function. We have identified mutations in three affected individuals: a C to G substitution converting a tyrosine to a termination codon, a 39 base pair deletion and a 2 basepair deletion which creates a premature termination codon. We have identified endoglin as the HHT gene mapping to 9q3 and have established HHT as the first human disease defined by a mutation in a member of the TGF-beta receptor complex.