CYP3A gene expression in human gut epithelium

Pharmacogenetics. 1994 Oct;4(5):247-59. doi: 10.1097/00008571-199410000-00003.


CYP3A4, a major Phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme present in liver, is also present in human small bowel epithelium where it appears to catalyse significant 'first pass' metabolism of some drugs. To determine whether CYP3A4 or the related enzymes CYP3A3, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 are present in other regions of the digestive tract, we used CYP3A-specific antibodies to examine histological sections and epithelial microsomes obtained from a human organ donor. CYP3A-related proteins were detected in epithelia throughout the digestive tract and in gastric parietal cells, in pericentral hepatocytes, and in ductular cells of the pancreas. Immunoblot analysis suggested that the major CYP3A protein present in liver, jejunum, colon, and pancreas was CYP3A4 or CYP3A3, whereas CYP3A5 was the major protein present in stomach. Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNA were detectable in all regions of the digestive tract using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR); however, only CYP3A4 could be detected by Northern blot analysis. CYP3A7 mRNA was consistently detected only in the liver by PCR and CYP3A3 mRNA was not detected in any of the tissues. We conclude that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are present throughout the human digestive tract and that differences in the expression of these enzymes may account for inter-organ differences in the metabolism of CYP3A substrates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Intestinal Mucosa / enzymology*
  • Intestine, Small / enzymology*
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics*
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism


  • DNA, Complementary
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
  • CYP3A protein, human
  • CYP3A5 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • CYP3A4 protein, human