The accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosis of pancreatic cancers was evaluated in consecutive 232 patients with possible pancreatic cancer, and that for assessment of their locoregional spread was evaluated in 28 patients with pancreatic cancer subjected to pancreatectomy, in comparison with the accuracies of transabdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). EUS was found to be significantly more accurate than US or CT and was especially useful for detecting small pancreatic cancers of less than 2 cm in diameter. With EUS, pancreatic cancers could be detected as a hypoechoic mass with a relatively unclear margin and irregular internal echoes. EUS was also more sensitive than CT and US for detecting venous and gastric invasions: it was more useful for detecting direct invasion of pancreatic cancers when the tumors were less than 3 cm in diameter. These findings indicate that EUS is an accurate method for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and assessment of their locoregional spread and is particularly useful for detecting small tumors.