Findings and outcome in whiplash-type neck distortions

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994 Dec 15;19(24):2733-43. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199412150-00001.


Study design: The authors assessed the clinical and imaging findings and late outcome in 50 patients with whiplash-type neck distortions (17 men, 33 women, mean age 33 years).

Summary of background data: Early symptoms are neck pain, stiffness, and sometimes radiating pain; later bizarre symptomatology poses intricate clinical and medicolegal problems. Pathoanatomic studies indicate that soft tissue injuries may be overlooked.

Methods: Repeated clinical and radiographic examinations (plain and flexion-extension radiograms and contrast magnetic resonance imaging evaluated with a new grading system); surgical findings; follow-up were performed after 1 and 5 years by an independent observer neurologist.

Results: Neck pain persisted in 24 patients; radiating pain developed within 6 weeks in 19 patients. Two patients with segmental instability had posterior fusions and complete pain relief. Eight patients with severe radiating pain and large disc protrusions on magnetic resonance had nine surgically confirmed fresh disc herniations. Discectomy and fusion alleviated pain in these patients, whereas symptoms largely persisted in the conservatively treated patients.

Conclusions: A high incidence of discoligamentous injuries was found in whiplash-type distortions. Most patients with severe persisting radiating pain had large disc protrusions on MRI that were confirmed as herniations at surgery. Neck and radiating pain were alleviated by early disc excision and fusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intervertebral Disc Displacement / diagnosis
  • Intervertebral Disc Displacement / etiology*
  • Intervertebral Disc Displacement / surgery
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Soft Tissue Injuries / etiology*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Whiplash Injuries / complications*
  • Whiplash Injuries / diagnosis
  • Whiplash Injuries / surgery