The use of thoracoscopy in the patient with penetrating injury to the thorax is in its infancy. Although it is used mainly for diagnosis, evidence suggests that it will become a therapeutic tool during the initial management of the traumatized patient and in the postinjury period (early evacuation of retained hemothorax and the treatment of empyema). Although its role in injuries to the superior chest is clear, its role has not been established in the evaluation of the diaphragm. Both laparoscopy and thoracoscopy offer advantages in this area that must be considered when contemplating diagnosis and treatment. Further studies help define the place of these procedures for injuries in the thoracoabdominal area. The indications for cavitary endoscopy after truncal injury are summarized in Table 2. It must be remembered that experience in this field is rapidly increasing, and indications will change with new studies and new technology.