A single blind trial and a placebo controlled double blind trial of lithium were carried out in elderly patients with tardive dyskinesia. In the pilot study, neuroleptics were continued: in the controlled trial, neuroleptics were discontinued. The results of both studies were essentially negative. Thus, the suppression effect of neuroleptics is much more dramatic than anything seen in the two studies. Several reasons for this were discussed namely, the severity and chronicity of the symptoms.