Phage libraries for generation of clinically useful antibodies

Lancet. 1994 Feb 19;343(8895):455-6. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(94)92695-6.


Insertion of antibody genes into filamentous bacteriophage makes it possible to generate and screen libraries of 10(7) or more antibodies. Each phage expresses an antibody on its surface and contains the corresponding antibody gene. Genes that encode antibodies with desired characteristics are readily selected and their antibodies expressed as soluble proteins in Escherichia coli. We used this system to produce an antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen with higher affinity and better tumour specificity than antibodies currently in use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / genetics
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm / biosynthesis*
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm / genetics
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology
  • Antibody Affinity
  • Antibody Specificity
  • Bacteriophages / genetics*
  • Bacteriophages / immunology
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen / immunology*
  • Gene Library
  • Humans
  • Mice


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen