Two long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases, referred to as ACH1 and ACH2, were purified from the liver cytosol of rats fed a diet containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a peroxisome proliferator. The molecular mass of ACH1 was estimated to be 73 kDa by gel filtration, and that of the subunits, 36 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The corresponding values of ACH2 were 42 and 43 kDa, respectively. Both enzymes were active toward fatty acyl-CoAs with chain-lengths of C12-16, but ACH1 had relatively broad specificity as acyl-CoAs with C8-18 were good substrates. A marked difference in their catalytic properties was found in the maximal velocity; for palmitoyl-CoA, 553 and 4.23 mumol/min/mg with Km values of 5.9 and 5.4 microM for ACH1 and ACH2, respectively. ACH2 underwent severe substrate inhibition with high concentrations of long-chain acyl-CoAs, whereas ACH1 did not. Examination with various reagents including divalent cations, sulfhydryl-blocking reagent, nucleotides, and hypolipidemic drugs, characterized ACH1 and ACH2 with several properties distinct from those of mitochondrial and microsomal hydrolases. ACH1 and ACH2 were also discernible in that the former, but not the latter, was inhibited by ATP. In the liver cytosol of rats treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, about 90% of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity was titrated with anti-ACH1 and anti-ACH2 antibodies. Immunoblot analysis suggested the presence of the enzymes also in extrahepatic tissues, especially in the brain and testis (ACH1), and in the heart and kidney (ACH2).