The cholesterolemic effect of chicken eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was investigated in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three male university students consumed two regular or n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs per day with their habitual diet for 18 days. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were raised in subjects who consumed regular eggs but were maintained virtually unchanged in those who consumed n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs. Intake of two regular eggs a day did not affect plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, but intake of two n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs a day resulted in a significant elevation in HDL-C (p < 0.05) and a reduction in plasma TG (p < 0.01). Consuming regular eggs tended to decrease both HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C ratios, whereas consuming n-3-enriched eggs tended to increase them. The n-3 PUFA contents in plasma lipids of subjects who consumed n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs were also found to be elevated. These results demonstrate that the cholesterolemic property of chicken eggs can be modified by altering the fatty acid composition of yolk lipids.