Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays a key role in neurotransmission. It provides the energy for the uptake and storage of neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles and granules. It also may play a role in the biogenesis of synaptic vesicles as well as in neurosecretion. This is one of the most conserved fundamental enzymes in nature, but functions in a wide variety or organelles and membranes. Its structure, function, molecular biology and biogenesis is discussed in relation to its role in neurotransmission. Termination of neurotransmission is carried out by neurotransmitter transporters that function in the reuptake of the neurotransmitters into the presynaptic cells. We cloned, sequenced and expressed several cDNAs encoding neurotransmitter transporters. Their specificity and site of synthesis revealed some new aspects of neurotransmission.