Isolated, perfused rat kidney released lactate dehydrogenase in response to the protocol of a standard oxygen-paradox or calcium-paradox. The results are comparable to those found with rat heart. The mitochondria of the proximal tubule cells at the end of the calcium-paradox were swollen, had mitochondrial bars and were subdivided with internal septa; after the oxygen-paradox they exhibited, in addition, many myelin figures. Such ultrastructural changes were characteristic of the mitochondria of skeletal and cardiac muscles damaged by a rise in [Ca2+]i. It is concluded (i) that typical calcium- and oxygen-paradoxes can be produced in kidney, (ii) that these are associated with a rise in [Ca2+]i and (iii) the proximal tubules, in particular, are damaged.