From the peripheral blood of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) we generated a T-cell line and clones which recognized autologous CLL. The line comprised T-cell clones which responded to the CLL as well as to autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells in an HLA-DR-restricted fashion. In addition, the line comprised clones which were CLL-specific and showed no reactivity against EBV-transformed B cells and against autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained during remission. The proliferative response of the CLL-specific T-cell clone was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR11, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictive element. These results indicate that the MHC class-II molecule of CLL binds a tumor-specific peptide which is recognized by autologous T cells in an MHC class-II-restricted fashion. Such a peptide may serve as a target for immunotherapy.