Ten-year outcome of tardive dyskinesia

Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Jun;151(6):836-41. doi: 10.1176/ajp.151.6.836.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of patients with tardive dyskinesia.

Method: A group of 122 neuroleptic-treated Hungarian outpatients were assessed for tardive dyskinesia on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and the Tardive Dyskinesia Rating Scale by the same rater over a 10-year period.

Results: Sixty-three of the patients received both 5- and 10-year follow-up assessments and are the subjects of this report. The overall prevalence of tardive dyskinesia in this group changed little over time; it was 30.2% at baseline, 36.5% at 5 years, and 31.7% at 10 years. However, there were changes in the tardive dyskinesia status of individual patients; 11 patients had remissions, and 12 who did not have tardive dyskinesia at the baseline assessment had developed it by the 10-year assessment. These two subgroups did not differ significantly on demographic and drug history variables. Outcome of tardive dyskinesia was not significantly related to neuroleptic treatment or to age.

Conclusions: The data of this 10-year follow-up study provide evidence for the long-term stability of tardive dyskinesia and for the feasibility of maintenance neuroleptic therapy for chronic psychotic patients who have tardive dyskinesia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Care
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / diagnosis
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / epidemiology*
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / etiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hungary / epidemiology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Physical Examination
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Antipsychotic Agents