Of 158 cases of subglottic stenosis 115 were congenital and 43 acquired. Current follow-up has been obtained in 146 (92%) which constitutes the determinate group. Although stridor was the most common presenting symptom of the congenital group, 34% presented with recurrent or prolonged episodes of croup. Tracheotomy was required in 47 of the 107 determinate cases (44%). Further management of the congenital cases was based on the experience that children outgrow this disorder; periodic dilatation may augment the natural process. Of those infants and children tracheotomized, all but five have been decannulated, and there was one death - a mortality rate of 2.1%. Acquired subglottic stenosis proved to be a more difficult management problem. Tracheotomy was necessary in 38 of the 39 determinate cases (97%). Repeated active dilatations for prolonged periods were usually required as well as endoscopic removal of granulation tissue. Of those infants and children tracheotomized, all but eight have been decannulated. There were nine deaths; five were due to unrelated underlying disease; four were attributable to complications of long-term tracheostomy. Thus, in the entire series, 85 infants and children required tracheotomy and five deaths may be attributable to long-term tracheostomy complications - a mortality rate of 5.9%.