Antisera were raised against leucokinin IV, a member of the leucokinin peptide family. Immunohistochemical localization of leucokinin immunoreactivity in the brain of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea revealed neurosecretory cells in the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, several bilateral pairs of interneurons in the protocerebrum, and a group of interneurons in the optic lobe. Several immunoreactive interneurons were found in the thoracic ganglia, while the abdominal ganglia contained prominent immunoreactive neurosecretory cells, which projected to the lateral cardiac nerve. The presence of leucokinins in the abdominal nerve cord was confirmed by HPLC combined with ELISA. Leucokinin-immunoreactive neurosecretory cells were also found in the pars intercerebralis of the cricket Acheta domesticus and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but not in the locust Schistocerca americana or the honey bee Apis mellifera. However, all these species have leucokinin-immunoreactive neurosecretory cells in the abdominal ganglia. The neurohemal organs innervated by abdominal leucokinin-immunoreactive cells were different in each species.