Nine patients with atypical HIV-1 western blot profiles were diagnosed as having HIV-1 subtype O infection. All the patients were living in France; eight originated from Cameroon and one from France. Lymphocyte DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction was only positive when HIV-1 subtype O specific primers were used. Preliminary sequence analysis of amplified products and serological reactivity against a specific subtype O synthetic env peptide confirmed HIV-1 subtype O infection. HIV-1/HIV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, especially those based on env peptides or on the sandwich format, can be negative in HIV-1 subtype O infection.