Glutamate modulates [Ca2+]i and gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons

Neuroendocrinology. 1994 Apr;59(4):309-17. doi: 10.1159/000126672.


Glutamate and its receptors are present in the hypothalamus and have been proposed to participate in neuroendocrine regulation, including the control of GnRH secretion. To address the mechanism of glutamate action, we measured [Ca2+]i, inositol phosphate, and secretory responses to glutamate receptor subtype agonists and antagonists in the immortalized GT1-7 cell line of GnRH-secreting hypothalamic neurons. Glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, and trans-(+/-)-1-amino-(1S,3R)-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid increased GnRH secretion. In monolayer cultures of GT1-7 cells, L- but not D-glutamate induced a moderate, concentration-dependent rise in [Ca2+]i. The action of glutamate on [Ca2+]i was mimicked by NMDA, alpha-amino-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isoxazolepropanoic acid (AMPA), and kainate. Responses to NMDA were potentiated by the coagonist, glycine, and were inhibited by an antagonist of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor, 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA). NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i responses were also inhibited by Mg2+ and by the NMDA receptor antagonist, (5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,1 0-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801), but not by the AMPA/kainate antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). In contrast, responses to AMPA and kainate were inhibited by CNQX but not by Mg2+, DCKA, or MK-801. Responses to glutamate were more inhibited by MK-801 plus CNQX than by either antagonist alone. All [Ca2+]i responses were nearly abolished in Ca(2+)-free solution. None of the agonists stimulated inositol phosphate formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cycloleucine / analogs & derivatives
  • Cycloleucine / metabolism
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
  • Fura-2
  • Glutamates / pharmacology
  • Glutamates / physiology*
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism*
  • Hypothalamus / cytology
  • Hypothalamus / metabolism*
  • Inositol Phosphates / biosynthesis
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neurotoxins / metabolism
  • Receptors, AMPA / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, AMPA / drug effects
  • Receptors, AMPA / metabolism
  • Receptors, Glutamate / drug effects
  • Receptors, Glutamate / metabolism
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / drug effects
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence


  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
  • Glutamates
  • Inositol Phosphates
  • Neurotoxins
  • Receptors, AMPA
  • Receptors, Glutamate
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  • Cycloleucine
  • 1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Calcium
  • Fura-2