Acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia have been described in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia; the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of the endocrinopathies is unknown. We report a 26-year-old man with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and hypersecretion of GH and PRL. Plasma GH, PRL, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were elevated. Glucose-non-suppressible plasma GH concentrations, GH responsiveness to TRH and GHRH, and GH suppression after a test-dose of somatostatin, octreotide, and bromocriptine were found. Plasma GHRH levels were within the normal range (< 25 ng/l). Computed tomography of the sella turcica and visual fields were normal. [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]-octreotide scintigraphy were used to localize a possible tumor; no radioactivity was visualized at the site of the hypothalamus, the pituitary or elsewhere in the body but a considerable accumulation of radioactivity was found in the os frontalis. Therapy with octreotide by continuous sc infusion partially suppressed GH and IGF-I (and normalized PRL). The results suggest that hypersecretion of GH in our patient is not due to a GH-secreting pituitary tumor, eutopic or ectopic hypersecretion of GHRH or autonomous somatotroph function. The origin of the disease in this patient might be an abnormal hypothalamic regulation of somatotrophs and/or an alteration in the transmembrane signalling systems.