Diabetes mellitus in treated hypertension: incidence, predictive factors and the impact of non-selective beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics during 15 years treatment of middle-aged hypertensive men in the Primary Prevention Trial Göteborg, Sweden

J Hum Hypertens. 1994 Apr;8(4):257-63.


The objective of this study was to analyse predictive factors for the development of diabetes mellitus during long-term treatment of hypertension and to compare the diabetogenic potential of thiazide diuretics and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockers. The study population comprised 686 hypertensive men, aged 47-54 years, who were followed for 15 years. Patients were treated with either thiazide diuretics or beta-adrenoceptor blockers as monotherapy or in combination with one another or alternative other antihypertensive drugs. During the first part of the study, i.e. during the 1970s, only non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockers were used. The average yearly incidence of the development of diabetes mellitus during follow-up was 1.3%. In univariate analysis body mass index, serum triglyceride level, radiographic heart enlargement and beta-blocker therapy were significantly associated with the development of diabetes mellitus. Predictors selected by stepwise Cox regression were body mass index, radiological heart enlargement and beta-blocker therapy. Two subgroups with patients treated with nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockers but not with thiazide diuretics during the first five years of follow-up (the beta-blocker group; n = 93) or with thiazide diuretics but not with nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockers during the first five years of follow-up (the thiazide-group; n = 96) were identified. The relative risk for developing diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the beta-blocker group being 6.1 after 10 years and 3.5 after 15 years treatment in comparison with the thiazide group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / adverse effects
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Age Factors
  • Benzothiadiazines*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / prevention & control
  • Diuretics
  • Heart / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Radiography
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Time Factors
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Benzothiadiazines
  • Diuretics
  • Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
  • Triglycerides