The mossy cells represent a prominent cell type of the hilar region. Whereas the morphology of these neurons, their synaptic connections, and physiological characteristics have been described in some detail, information about their neurotransmitter is still lacking. Using immunocytochemistry in combination with Golgi impregnation, the authors demonstrate that identified mossy cells are GABA-immunonegative but stain for glutamate. These results do not prove that these cells use glutamate as a transmitter, since glutamate is a ubiquitous metabolite. However, together with the lack of GABA staining and a recent report on asymmetric spine synapses formed by identified mossy cell axons, the present results support an excitatory nature of these neurons.