Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Lancet. 1994 Aug 27;344(8922):590-3. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(94)91970-4.


Retrospective surveys of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage suggest that minor episodes with sudden headache (warning leaks) may precede rupture of an aneurysm, and that early recognition and surgery might lead to improved outcome. We studied 148 patients with sudden and severe headache (possible sentinel headache) seen by 252 general practitioners in a 5-year period in the Netherlands. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was the cause in 37 patients (25%) (proven aneurysm in 21, negative angiogram in 6, no angiogram done in 6, sudden headache followed by death in 4). 103 patients had headache as the only symptom, 12 of whom proved to have subarachnoid haemorrhage (6 with a ruptured aneurysm). Previous bouts of sudden headache had occurred in only 2. Other serious neurological conditions were diagnosed in 18. In the remaining 93, no underlying cause of headache was found; follow-up over 1 year showed no subsequent subarachnoid haemorrhage or sudden death. In this cohort, acute, severe headache in general practice indicated a serious neurological disorder in 37% (95% CI 29-45%), and subarachnoid haemorrhage in 25% (18-32%). 12% (5-18%) of those with headache as the only symptom. The notion of warning leaks as a less serious variant of subarachnoid haemorrhage is not supported by this study. Early recognition of subarachnoid haemorrhage is important but will probably have only limited impact on the outcome in the general population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / complications
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Headache / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / complications*
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rupture, Spontaneous
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / complications*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnosis