Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to study the distribution of glycine receptor (GlyR) subunits and the GlyR-associated protein gephyrin in the rat retina. Monoclonal antibodies against the alpha and beta subunits of the GlyR and gephyrin showed a strong punctate labeling pattern in the inner plexiform layer. Glycine receptor mRNAs were found in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. The alpha 1 subunit mRNA is predominantly present in the outer half of the INL and on some but not all ganglion cells. GlyR alpha 2 subunit mRNA is predominantly present in the inner half of the INL and on nearly all cells in the ganglion cell layer. GlyR alpha 3-, GlyR beta-, and gephyrin-mRNAs are present in the entire INL and in cells in the ganglion cell layer. The differential expression of glycine receptor subunits indicates a functional diversity of glycine receptors in the retina.