For a number of cytotoxics, a relationship between efficacy and plasma concentrations has recently been demonstrated. Lean body mass has been demonstrated to be a useful parameter for predicting drug clearance for a number of non-cytotoxic drugs. However, the role of lean body mass in predicting drug clearance for any cytotoxic drug has not been previously reported. Our purpose was to investigate lean body mass as a predictor of epirubicin clearance. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in 10 patients receiving single agent epirubicin. Although preliminary, this study suggests that lean body should be further evaluated and tested in dose optimization studies.