Familial hyperinsulinism (HI) is the most common cause of persistent neonatal hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycemia. Linkage analysis in 15 families (12 Ashkenazi Jewish, 2 consanguineous Arab, 1 non-Jewish Caucasian) mapped HI to chromosome 11p14-15.1 (lod score = 9.5, theta = 0 at D11S921). Recombinants localized the disease locus to the 6.6 cM interval between D11S926 and D11S928. In Jewish families, association (p = 0.003) with specific D11S921/D11S419 haplotypes suggested a founder effect. This locus, which is important for normal glucose-regulated insulin secretion, represents a candidate gene for studies of other diseases of beta-cell dysfunction including non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).