A large number of morphologically normal, fertile, transgenic rice plants were obtained by co-cultivation of rice tissues with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The efficiency of transformation was similar to that obtained by the methods used routinely for transformation of dicotyledons with the bacterium. Stable integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis of transformants in the R0, R1 and R2 generations. Sequence analysis revealed that the boundaries of the T-DNA in transgenic rice plants were essentially identical to those in transgenic dicotyledons. Calli induced from scutella were very good starting materials. A strain of A. tumefaciens that carried a so-called 'super-binary' vector gave especially high frequencies of transformation of various cultivars of japonica rice that included Koshihikari, which normally shows poor responses in tissue culture.