The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) has been implicated in the activation of protein synthesis required for long-term facilitation, a cellular model of memory in Aplysia. Our studies with fear conditioning and with the water maze show that mice with a targeted disruption of the alpha and delta isoforms of CREB are profoundly deficient in long-term memory. In contrast, short-term memory, lasting between 30 and 60 min, is normal. Consistent with models claiming a role for long-term potentiation (LTP) in memory, LTP in hippocampal slices from CREB mutants decayed to baseline 90 min after tetanic stimulation. However, paired-pulse facilitation and posttetanic potentiation are normal. These results implicate CREB-dependent transcription in mammalian long-term memory.