During mouse development, the homeobox-containing gene En-1 is specifically expressed across the mid-hindbrain junction, the ventral ectoderm of the limb buds, and in regions of the hindbrain, spinal cord, somites and somite-derived tissues. To address the function of En-1 during embryogenesis, we have generated mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the En-1 homeobox. En-1 mutant mice died shortly after birth and exhibited multiple developmental defects. In the brains of newborn mutants, most of the colliculi and cerebellum were missing and the third and fourth cranial nerves were absent. A deletion of midhindbrain tissue was observed as early as 9.5 days of embryonic development and the phenotype resembles that previously reported for Wnt-1 mutant mice. In addition, patterning of the forelimb paws and sternum was disrupted, and the 13th ribs were truncated. The results of these studies suggest a cell autonomous role for En-1 in generation and/or survival of mid-hindbrain precursor cells and also a non-cell autonomous role in signalling normal development of the limbs and possibly sternum.