Regulation of G1 Progression by E2A and Id Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins

EMBO J. 1994 Sep 15;13(18):4291-301.


In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the ubiquitous helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein E2A (E12/E47) and the myogenic HLH proteins MyoD, MRF4 and myogenin are growth-inhibitory, while two ubiquitous Id proteins lacking the basic region are not. The dimerization domain mediates inhibition. However, in addition to the HLH region, E2A contains two inhibitory regions over-lapping with the main transcriptional activation domains. The growth-suppressive activity of the intact E47 as well as MyoD was counteracted by the Id proteins. When E47 lacking the HLH domain was overexpressed, Id could no longer reverse growth inhibition. By increasing the amount of E47 with an inducible system or neutralizing the endogenous Id with microinjected anti-Id antibodies, withdrawal from the cell cycle occurred within hours before the G1-S transition point. The combined results suggest that the Id proteins are required for G1 progression. The antagonism between the E2A and Id proteins further suggests that both are involved in regulatory events prior to or near the restriction point in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Estrogens / pharmacology
  • G1 Phase / drug effects
  • G1 Phase / physiology*
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs*
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1
  • Mice
  • Repressor Proteins*
  • S Phase / drug effects
  • S Phase / physiology
  • TCF Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein
  • Transcription Factors*


  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Estrogens
  • Idb1 protein, mouse
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1
  • Repressor Proteins
  • TCF Transcription Factors
  • Tcf7l1 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein
  • Transcription Factors