Testicular tumor and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Eur Urol. 1994;26(1):71-6. doi: 10.1159/000475346.


Immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), present an increased risk of tumoral pathology. From the observation of a testicular lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus in a HIV + patient, we review 19 cases of testicular tumor in HIV + patients previously published in the literature. These tumors are either lymphomas (4 cases) or germ cell tumors (15 cases). Their diagnosis was not difficult, although in the first stages enlarged and painful testicles are often wrongly identified as orchiepididymitis and treated as such. Therapy management proves to be delicate as a result of the significant tumor spread seen in these patients with dysfunctional immune systems. Regarding lymphomas, a low-dose multiagent chemotherapy with intrathecal chemotherapy was recommended by Levine. Concerning germ cell tumors, Wilson prefers an instant aggressive treatment with retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (whether or not combined with chemotherapy) to avoid the risk of recurrence. In fact, tumor relapses will be difficult to control in the progressive stages of immunodeficiency syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Germinoma / epidemiology
  • Herpesviridae Infections / complications
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology*
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy
  • Male
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology*
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • Testis / pathology*
  • Tumor Virus Infections / complications