This study, performed in individuals of Sardinian descent, reports an epidemiologic and molecular analysis of the recently identified DQB1*0304 and DQB1*0305 alleles. These two alleles having a gene frequency of 0.017 and 0.005, respectively, are not uncommon in Sardinia and are distributed fairly uniformly on the island. The analysis of DQB1 second and third exons of the two alleles revealed that although they have always been found included within the same DRB1*0403-DQA1*03 haplotype, they had a different origin. The sequence pattern of DQB1*0305 confirmed that it originated from the DQB1*0302 "recipient" gene by the insertion of a DQB1*0402 nucleotide stretch, within its beta-sheet region, while that of DQB1*0304 suggested that it originated from the DQB1*0301 gene, either by a single point mutation at codon 57 (GCC instead of GAC) or, alternatively, by a segmental transfer of a DQB1*0302 motif, including codon 57, within its alpha-helic region. Independently from the mechanism of generation, the fact that DQB1*0304 originated from DQB1*0301 allele was intriguing considering that, in over 1500 HLA class II Sardinian haplotypes examined, neither the putative parental DRB1*0403-DQA1*03-DQB1*0301 haplotypes were found. Finally, since the assignment of DQB1*0305 may be inaccurate with the traditional panel of probes commonly used for DQB1 oligotyping, the use of an additional oligonucleotide probe is recommended.