Induction of extrahepatic biliary carcinoma by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine in hamsters given cholecystoduodenostomy with dissection of the common duct

Jpn J Cancer Res. 1994 Aug;85(8):780-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.1994.tb02948.x.


The methods we used to produce a carcinoma in the extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder in hamsters are described along with the characteristics of the induced tumors. Female Syrian golden hamsters were first subjected to cholecystoduodenostomy with dissection of the extrahepatic bile duct on the distal end of the common duct (CDDB) and were, 4 weeks later, treated with weekly subcutaneous injections of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 9 weeks. The animals were killed at the 12th, 16th and 20th week after the initiation of BOP treatment. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma developed in 16%, 24% and 41% and gallbladder carcinoma occurred in 58%, 81% and 82% of the hamsters, respectively, at the corresponding times of killing. The incidences were significantly higher than those in sham-operated controls (P < 0.01). The induced extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas were predominantly of the polypoid type and gallbladder carcinomas were of the papillary type in growth form, being morphologically similar to early stage biliary carcinoma in humans. Immunohistochemical staining using bromodeoxyuridine and anti-bromodeoxyuridine monoclonal antibody demonstrated that the CDDB procedure greatly accelerated the cell kinetic activity of the biliary epithelium, and this was considered to be a major factor promoting the development of biliary carcinomas in this hamster model. In conclusion, this new model provides a high incidence of tumor development at the extrahepatic biliary tract and is expected to be useful for clarifying the characteristics of this highly malignant tumor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology
  • Bile Ducts / physiology*
  • Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic*
  • Carcinogens
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cricetinae
  • Female
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Kinetics
  • Mesocricetus
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Nitrosamines


  • Carcinogens
  • Nitrosamines
  • nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine