C/EBP beta regulation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene

J Clin Invest. 1994 Oct;94(4):1449-55. doi: 10.1172/JCI117482.


Activated macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation by the secretion of cytokines and proteinases. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is particularly important in this process because of its ability to regulate other inflammatory mediators in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. The mechanism(s) responsible for the cell type-specific regulation of TNF alpha is not known. We present data to show that the expression of TNF alpha is regulated by the transcription factor C/EBP beta (NF-IL6). C/EBP beta activated the TNF alpha gene promoter in cotransfection assays and bound to it at a site which failed to bind the closely related protein C/EBP alpha. Finally, a dominant-negative version of C/EBP beta blocked TNF alpha promoter activation in myeloid cells. Our results implicate C/EBP beta as an important regulator of TNF alpha by myelomonocytic cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Line
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Monocytes / physiology
  • Mutation / physiology
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • T-Lymphocytes / physiology
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcriptional Activation / physiology*
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics*


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • DNA
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate