Influence of major depression on 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury

J Neurosurg. 1994 Nov;81(5):726-33. doi: 10.3171/jns.1994.81.5.0726.


The authors examine those factors that contributed to deterioration in social functioning, activities of daily living, or intellectual functioning during a 1-year period after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-two patients suffering an acute TBI were evaluated for existence and severity of mood disorders and impairment during their hospital stays and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. Patients whose scores on intellectual function, social function, or daily activities deteriorated during the 1-year period after trauma were considered to have a poor outcome. Eleven of 52 patients had a poor outcome in social function, which was associated with race, right-hemisphere lesions, intellectual impairment, and prolonged major depression. Seven of 52 patients had a poor outcome in daily activities, which was associated with a major depression of more than 6 months' duration and severity of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Eleven of these patients had a poor outcome in cognitive function, which was associated with cognitive impairment immediately after TBI. A major depression lasting more than 6 months was associated with deterioration of social functioning and activities of daily living during the 1-year period after TBI.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adult
  • Affect
  • Anxiety Disorders / complications
  • Blacks
  • Brain Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Injuries / pathology
  • Brain Injuries / psychology*
  • Cognition
  • Depressive Disorder / complications*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Forecasting
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Head Injuries, Closed
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Mood Disorders / complications
  • Prognosis
  • Regression Analysis
  • Social Adjustment
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed