NDP-K/nm23 expression in human breast cancer in relation to relapse, survival, and other prognostic factors: an immunohistochemical study

J Pathol. 1994 Jan;172(1):27-34. doi: 10.1002/path.1711720107.


The nm23 gene was originally identified by Steeg et al. by screening of cDNA libraries from murine melanoma cell lines of varying metastatic potential. An inverse relationship between metastatic potential and nm23 RNA and/or protein was found in four different metastatic model systems. It was proposed that nm23 may function as a suppressor gene for tumour metastasis. It has recently been found that the sequence of nm23 and NDP-kinase (NDP-K) is identical. Using an immunohistochemical technique and employing a polyclonal antibody to purified NDP-K A, we have determined NDP-K expression in a series of 197 breast carcinomas. One hundred and sixty (81.2 per cent) of these tumours were scored positive for NDP-K and 37 (18.8 per cent) scored negative. No relationship was found between NDP-K/nm23 expression and patient relapse or survival. Furthermore, no relationship was found between NDP-K/nm23 expression and a number of other prognostic factors including tumour grade, oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p53 expression. Our results contradict the hypothesis concerning the possible role of NDP-K/nm23 as a metastatic suppressor gene in human breast cancer, but further studies using antibodies specific for NDP-K/nm23 subtypes are clearly indicated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / chemistry*
  • Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Eye Proteins / analysis*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins*
  • NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases
  • Neoplasm Proteins / analysis*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis*
  • Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase*
  • Prognosis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / analysis*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Eye Proteins
  • NDP protein, human
  • NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transcription Factors
  • NME1 protein, human
  • Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins