We studied postoperative astigmatism in 107 patients who were followed for 12 months after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber lens implantation. A scleral incision of 3.5 mm was used in Group A patients and one of 4.5 mm in Group B patients. In both groups a no-stitch wound closure technique was used. A high correlation between preoperative and 12-month postoperative height and time shift of keratometric values was found. In both groups the mean difference was less than 0.60 diopters (D). The mean postoperative cylinder increase was less than 0.50 D; it was less than 0.25 D after six months. The induced astigmatism was confirmed by three different methods. Immediately after surgery, a negative induced astigmatism was found in both groups. After 12 months, induced astigmatism in Group A was -0.37 D and in Group B, -0.67 D. Immediately after surgery there was an axis change; a decrease of with-the-rule astigmatism occurred concurrently with an increase toward oblique and against-the-rule astigmatism. This axis change was somewhat evident after 12 months.