As part of our search for novel antiinflammatory drug candidates, we have designed and synthesized a series of 3-pyridylmethyl-substituted 2-amino-6- hydroxybenzothiazoles. Introduction of a 3-pyridylmethyl group into the 2-amino group (type-A) or the benzene ring (type-B) of 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazoles imparted dual inhibitory activity against the production by glycogen-induced peritoneal cells of rat (in vitro) of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), while not significantly inhibiting that of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The observed inhibition of the former two arachidonic acid metabolites was indicated to be the result of a direct action on 5-lipoxygenase and TXA2 synthetase by a cell-free in vitro assay. On the other hand, the inhibitory activities against PGE2 production were for most compounds very weak, indicating that they did not inhibit cyclooxygenase. Structure-activity relationship studies concerning the position of the 3-pyridylmethyl group revealed that type-B compounds generally showed about 10-fold stronger inhibitory activity against TXA2 synthetase than type-A compounds. The position of the 3-pyridylmethyl group played an important role in TXA2 synthetase inhibition. When some of these compounds (8, 13a, 26a (E3040), 26b, 27b, and 28b) were orally administered in the rat TNB/ethanol-induced chronic colitis model (100 mg/kg), the production of both LTB4 and TXB2 in the rat colon was reduced (ex vivo). In addition, one type-B compound, 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethyl-2-(methylamino)-4-(3-pyridylmethyl)benzothiazole (26a), demonstrated a therapeutic effect at treatments of 100 mg/kg po once daily for 11 days and showed almost comparable activity to sulfasalazine at a dose of 500 mg/kg, the reference drug for inflammatory bowel diseases, in this in vivo model.