We have developed an immunological procedure for measuring advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) in serum. Using this method, we measured AGEs in healthy volunteers, patients with diabetes, renal failure without treatment and in patients with renal failure, treated with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We found that AGEs were moderately elevated in diabetics without renal failure and highly elevated in CAPD and HD patients irrespective of their glycemic status. AGE levels correlated significantly with creatinine levels but not with levels of glucose or patient age or sex. AGE levels were reduced significantly post-hemodialysis. Preliminary experiments have shown that circulating AGEs have a molecular weight of approximately 1.5 to 2.0 kDa. More studies are needed to establish if AGE measurements in serum are prognostic indicators of the complications of either diabetes or renal failure.