Control and Function of lysyl-tRNA Synthetases: Diversity and Co-Ordination

Mol Microbiol. 1993 Oct;10(2):225-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01948.x.


Lysyl-tRNA synthetases are synthesized from two distinct genes in Escherichia coli, lysS (constitutively) and lysU (inducibly); however, the physiological significance and the differential control mechanism of these two genes have been a long-standing puzzle. Recent studies have successfully uncovered a significant control mechanism of lysU expression, which involves the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) and a translational enhancer element called 'downstream box'. Moreover, it is likely that there is a mechanism underlying co-ordinate expression of lysU with other genes outside the leucine-Lrp regulon under harsh conditions such as low pH and anaerobiosis. A possible mechanism of lysyl-tRNA synthetase expression and function is reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli / enzymology
  • Escherichia coli / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein
  • Lysine-tRNA Ligase / biosynthesis
  • Lysine-tRNA Ligase / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transcription Factors*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Lrp protein, E coli
  • Transcription Factors
  • Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein
  • Lysine-tRNA Ligase