Data from the National Survey of Mammography Facilities are used to explore the efficiency of service delivery by mammography facilities. Screening mammography generally costs $100 or more. This study outlines principles recommended to lower unit costs of screening mammography and examines the extent to which facilities surveyed employed them. It reports charges, volume, and other facility characteristics, comparing them with the assumptions regarding these features in a study by the Physician Pricing Review Commission. That study, sponsored by the federal government, concluded that screening mammography can be delivered for around $60; however, only 14 percent of the facilities achieved the requisite volume of 15 or more mammograms per day. Facilities must become more efficient in order to charge the lower rates. This case study may have relevance for other potentially expensive preventive measures and medical procedures.