Construction and characterization of a normalized cDNA library

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 27;91(20):9228-32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.20.9228.


We have developed a simple procedure based on reassociation kinetics that can reduce effectively the high variation in abundance among the clones of a cDNA library that represent individual mRNA species. For this normalization, we used as a model system a library of human infant brain cDNAs that were cloned directionally into a phagemid vector and, thus, could be easily converted into single-stranded circles. After controlled primer extension to synthesize a short complementary strand on each circular template, melting and reannealing of the partial duplexes at relatively low C0t, and hydroxyapatite column chromatography, unreassociated circles were recovered from the flow through fraction and electroporated into bacteria, to propagate a normalized library without a requirement for subcloning steps. An evaluation of the extent of normalization has indicated that, from an extreme range of abundance of 4 orders of magnitude in the original library, the frequency of occurrence of any clone examined in the normalized library was brought within the narrow range of only 1 order of magnitude.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA Probes
  • DNA, Complementary*
  • Female
  • Gene Library*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood / genetics
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood / metabolism


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA Probes
  • DNA, Complementary
  • RNA, Messenger