[Adjuvant immunotherapy with keyhole limpet hemocyanin in category PT 2 N+ and PT 3-4, No-N+, Mo renal cell carcinoma]

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1994;106(14):455-8.
[Article in German]


This study was a prospective randomized trial to compare adjuvant immunotherapy with Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) after radical nephrectomy. From January 1983 to December 1988, 50 patients underwent radical nephrectomy for category PT 2 N+ and PT 3-4, No-N+, Mo renal cell carcinoma. Postoperatively 25 patients were given adjuvant treatment with the biological response modifier, Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH), and 25 patients were in the control group. In each group 2 patients were lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 55 months. Adjuvant treatment with KLH did not appear to improve the prognosis in renal cell carcinoma patients. The 5-year survival rate was 60% in the KLH group and 56.5% in the control group. Progress was seen in 9/23 in the KLH group, 10/23 in the controls. The median survival in patients showing progress was 27 and 28 months in the two groups, respectively. Studies with a combination of low dose cyclophosphamide and KLH revealed a positive immunostimulating effect, which may provide the rationale for further research concerning different KLH doses, schedules or therapeutic combinations.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hemocyanins / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms / mortality
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nephrectomy*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Hemocyanins
  • keyhole-limpet hemocyanin