Effects of physiological hyperinsulinemia on counterregulatory response to prolonged hypoglycemia in normal humans

Am J Physiol. 1994 Sep;267(3 Pt 1):E402-10. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1994.267.3.E402.

Abstract

To test the hypothesis that differing physiological insulin levels can modify the counter-regulatory response to prolonged hypoglycemia, experiments were carried out in 10 healthy male subjects. Insulin was infused subcutaneously for 8 h in two separate randomized protocols, so that steady-state levels of 132 +/- 6 pM (low) and 402 +/- 18 pM (high) were obtained. The fall in plasma glucose was controlled by the glucose-clamp technique. Plasma glucose fell slowly and similarly in both groups, reaching an identical steady-state (final 120 min of each study) level of 3.4 +/- 0.1 mM. Steady-state plasma epinephrine (2.5 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 nM) and norepinephrine (1.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 nM) were significantly (P < 0.05) greater during high- compared with low-dose insulin infusions. Plasma glucagon was reduced during high compared with low infusions (104 +/- 9 vs. 150 +/- 19 ng/l, P < 0.05). Growth hormone, cortisol, and pancreatic polypeptide increased significantly but were not different during the two insulin infusions. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was equal during the steady-state period (8.4 +/- 1.0 mumol.kg-1.min-1) of each infusion. Blood lactate levels (1,255 +/- 73 vs. 788 +/- 69 mumol/l, P < 0.02) were increased in high compared with low, but nonesterified fatty acid (205 +/- 43 vs. 579 +/- 65 mumol/l) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (40 +/- 36 vs. 159 +/- 51 mumol/l) were reduced (P < 0.002) during the high-compared with low-dose infusions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology
  • Glucose / biosynthesis
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Hormones / blood*
  • Humans
  • Hyperinsulinism / complications*
  • Hypoglycemia / complications*
  • Hypoglycemia / physiopathology*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Kinetics
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Hormones
  • Insulin
  • Glucose