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Review
. 1994;5(1):1-22.
doi: 10.1615/critrevoncog.v5.i1.10.

Chemoprevention and Therapy of Cancer by D-Limonene

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Review

Chemoprevention and Therapy of Cancer by D-Limonene

P L Crowell et al. Crit Rev Oncog. .

Abstract

The naturally occurring monoterpene d-limonene has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against many rodent solid tumor types. The chemopreventive activity of limonene during initiation can be attributed to the induction of phase I and phase II enzymes, with resulting carcinogen detoxification. The chemopreventive activity of limonene during promotion/progression may be due in part to inhibition of the posttranslational isoprenylation of growth-controlling small G proteins, such as p21ras. The complete regression of mammary carcinomas by limonene appears to involve tissue redifferentiation. The multiple antitumorigenic effects of limonene are attainable at a high therapeutic ratio, suggesting that limonene and related monoterpenes may be efficacious in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of human malignancies.

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