Predictors of outcome of stroke in infants and children based on clinical data and radiologic correlates

Acta Paediatr. 1994 Jul;83(7):762-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13134.x.


Outcome predictors were analyzed in 45 infants and children with cerebrovascular disorders (CVD), based on clinical features and radiological correlates. The clinical features at presentation could be categorized into three major groups: (1) generalized: alteration of consciousness with or without seizures--24 patients (54%); (2) focal: acute hemiplegia or monoplegia with or without focal seizures--18 patients (40%); (3) cerebellar disturbances--3 patients (6%). The underlying etiology was detected in 80% of children. Thirty-seven patients (82%) survived the initial debilitating event, of whom 11 (29.7%) recovered completely and the rest had either motor or cognitive handicaps during an average follow-up period of 4.2 years (range 1.5-11 years). A head CT performed in all children revealed ischemic infarction in 29 patients (64.4%), while the others had hemorrhagic infarction. Of those with an initial generalized neurological presentation, as many as 50% had multi-focal lesions on CT. All children with focal neurological findings had a solitary localized lesion on CT, mainly in the distribution of the middle cerebral artery. Statistical analysis for outcome prediction showed that the following variables were associated with increased risk of immediate death: (1) hemorrhagic infarction demonstrated by brain CT (p = 0.031); (2) patients who presented with a generalized neurological disorder, namely alteration of consciousness, with or without seizures (p = 0.036). No other clinical or laboratory variables were predictive of imminent death, motor or cognitive handicaps. These may therefore serve as outcome predictors of stroke in the pediatric age group.

MeSH terms

  • Cerebellar Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cerebellar Diseases / etiology
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / classification
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / etiology
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / mortality
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coma / epidemiology
  • Coma / etiology
  • Disabled Persons
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hemiplegia / epidemiology
  • Hemiplegia / etiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Seizures / epidemiology
  • Seizures / etiology
  • Survival Rate
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed