Three days of male and female cohabitation dramatically reduces the density of vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) fibers in the lateral septum and lateral habenular nucleus of male, but not of female prairie voles. Here we tested whether this reduction is associated with changes in AVP messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the presumed source of these fibers, and with changes in testosterone levels, which may influence AVP biosynthesis in the BST. In addition, we tested whether similar changes can be found in meadow voles, which unlike prairie voles do not dramatically change their social behaviors after mating. In both species, males showed more AVP mRNA-labeled cells in the BST and more grains per labeled cell than females. In prairie vole males, cohabitation increased the number of AVP mRNA labeled BST cells and the density of grains per labeled cells. It also raised plasma testosterone levels. No changes were found in prairie vole females nor in meadow voles of either sex. The changes in prairie vole male suggest that cohabitation stimulates AVP biosynthesis. The previously observed decrease in AVP-ir fiber density in the lateral septum and lateral habenular nucleus may therefore reflect increased synaptic release of AVP, which may contribute to mating-induced changes in social behaviors in prairie vole males.