Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes

Child Abuse Negl. 1994 Aug;18(8):617-33. doi: 10.1016/0145-2134(94)90012-4.


Long-term intellectual and academic outcomes associated with early childhood victimization were studied using a sample of previously abused and neglected individuals (n = 413) and a matched control group (n = 286). IQ (Quick Test) and reading ability (WRAT-R) were assessed at approximately age 28 and differences between the groups were compared via multivariate analyses. Abused and neglected and control group individuals differed significantly in IQ and reading ability, even when controlling for age, sex, race, and social class. Types of maltreatment were associated with differences in IQ and reading ability in young adulthood. The limitations of this study are discussed as well as the role of IQ and/or reading ability as potential mediating variables for other outcomes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child Abuse / psychology*
  • Child Abuse, Sexual / psychology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Educational Status*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intelligence*
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reading
  • Risk Factors