mGluR1 mutant mice are viable but show characteristic cerebellar symptoms such as ataxic gait and intention tremor. The anatomy of the cerebellum is not overtly disturbed. Excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to Purkinje cells and that from climbing fibers (CFs) to Purkinje cells appear to be functional, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels of Purkinje cells are normal. Both PF and CF synapses display normal short-term synaptic plasticity to paired stimuli. By marked contrast, long-term depression (LTD) is clearly deficient and conditioned eyeblink response is impaired. We conclude that mGluR1 is required for the induction of LTD and that the ataxic behavior and impaired eyeblink conditioning of the mGluR1 mutant mice are primarily due to deficient LTD.