Pentoxifylline and intravenous gamma globulin combination therapy for acute Kawasaki disease

Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Sep;153(9):663-7. doi: 10.1007/BF02190688.


We compared the efficacy of oral administration of pentoxifylline (PTX) and intravenous infusions of gamma globulin (IVGG) combination therapy with that of IVGG in reducing the frequency of coronary-artery lesions (CAL) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD), in a randomized trial. All patients with KD received acetylsalicylic acid (30 mg/kg per day), until the 30th day, after the onset of fever, followed by daily acetylsalicylic acid at a dose of 3-5 mg/kg per day there-after, and intravenous IVGG, 200 mg/kg per day, for 5 consecutive days. In addition, patients randomly assigned to PTX and IVGG combination therapy groups received oral PTX at a dosage of 10 mg/kg per day (low-dose) or 20 mg/kg per day (high-dose), in three divided doses until the 30th day. Patients with KD were all free from CAL prior to treatment. We assessed the presence of CAL by two-dimensional echocardiography which was also done prior to treatment and then twice a week after hospital admission. We detected CAL in 3 of 18 patients (16.7%) in the IVGG therapy group, as compared with 2 of 18 patients (11.1%) in the low-dose PTX and IVGG combination therapy group. There were no significant difference between the two groups. In the next study, we detected CAL in 3 of 21 patients (14.3%) in the IVGG therapy group, as compared with none of 22 patients (0%) in the high-dose PTX and IVGG combination therapy group (chi 2 = 6.4, P < 0.02). No adverse side-effects were observed in 79 patients with KD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aspirin / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coronary Aneurysm / etiology
  • Coronary Aneurysm / prevention & control
  • Coronary Disease / etiology*
  • Coronary Disease / prevention & control
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / administration & dosage
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use*
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / complications
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Pentoxifylline / administration & dosage
  • Pentoxifylline / therapeutic use*


  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Aspirin
  • Pentoxifylline